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This Post records our 18-day adventures in Turkey between 26May and 13Jun
in 2011 covering the "9minus2" UNESCO scenic spots of the country from West to East.
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Have Fun! Bon Voyage!
出發前在 Google Map 上鎖定境內的九個世遺景點，計劃用兩個星期走一個圈來遊遍。
Short Video of the Food and Delights during our trip. (HD1080p 6min40sec 24fps 2Kbps 102MB)
Istanbul, the capital of Turkey, is a fascinating city of contrasts - a unique blend of old and new, ideally situated on a hilly area between the desert and the fertile Turkey Valley.
出發前在 Google Map 上鎖定伊斯坦堡景點分布，以方便瀏覽。
Scenic Spots: (click each to see individual HD video)
◆ Sultanahmet Camii (Blue Mosque)
◆ Ayasofya (Hagia Sophia)
◆ Topkapi Palace
◆ Sultan Bayezid Camii
◆ Shehzade Camii
◆ Sulemaniye Camii
◆ Basilica Cistern
◆ Grand Bazaar, Spice Bazaar, The Old & New Towns
From the 13th century to the advent of the railway in the early 20th century, Safranbolu was an important caravan station on the main East–West trade route. The Old Mosque, Old Bath and Süleyman Pasha Medrese were built in 1322. During its apogee in the 17th century, Safranbolu's architecture influenced urban development throughout much of the Ottoman Empire.
番紅花堡成為世遺，主要是它的 Ottoman 時代的民居建築，特色是四方盒形的設計，再蓋上菱角形屋頂，用泥土與木椿結合成。除了在市內瀏躂，還可以到近郊的峽谷、İncekaya Aqueduct 水道橋、 Bulak Mağarası(Mencilis)Cavern 洞窟觀光。
HD1080 59.99MB 00:03:52 MP4 Video of Safranbolu. (click thumbnail to watch)
Click Bouncing Mark for Local Map.
The history of the area around the present-day city is known to go as far back as the Paleolithic ages, with small settlements and tools from the era variously having been excavated over the past century.
The city and surrounding area rose to prominence with the emergence of the Hittite Empire between 1650-1200 BC, under the patronage of which the arts and local economy significantly developed and prospered. Hattusa, the capital of Hittite Empire, was located in the region owing to its inherent geographic protection, and the well-established local economy as supported by the regional Karum system.
Following the collapse of the Hittites, the Phyrgian Empire continued to keep stability in the region.
After the Phyrgians, the city underwent various rulerships, with the most prominent being the Medes, the Persians, Macedonians, Galatians, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Seljuks, and ultimately the Ottomans in the fourteenth century.
◆ Alaca Höyük, Hattusha Boğazköy
◆ Yazilikaya Temple, Hattusha Boğazköy
Alacahöyük (Alacahoyuk, Alacahuyuk) is located 36km to the north-east of the Hattusha (Bogazköy) in north central Turkey in the Çorum province. It was first excavated by Makridi Bey in 1907, but proper researches started in 1935 by the Turkish Historical Association.
Alacahöyük was an important city in pre-Hittite times, but after the Hittite conquest it remained in the shadow of the nearby capital Hattuša. The most important findings of the location are the artifacts from the pre-Hittite royal tombs dating from about 2500 B.C. But most of the standing monuments are from the Hittite times. The town walls with their carved orthostats have inner and outer gateways with ramps for archers. The southern outer monumental gateway, erected by the Hittite after they reoccupied Alaca was set between two towers, guarded by two great sphinxes. In the doorjambs are 13 foot hight monoliths carved to create each seven foot high sphinx. Inside the Sphinx Gate was a large Hittite building complex that still requires excavation. The bases of the two towers by the Sphinx Gate are decorated with several orthostats. Most of the reliefs and spinxes date from 14th centurty BC. The originals are replaced with replicas at the site and moved to Anatolian Civilizations Museum in Ankara.
◆ The Lower City of Hattusha,
◆ The Lion Gate,
◆ Tunnel and the Sphinx Gate,
◆ City Wall,
◆ The King's Gate,
◆ The Hyrogliphic Chamber, etc
Short Video of the Alacahöyük. (HD1080P MP4 7min7sec 24fps 2Kbps 106.24MB)
Situated among low rolling hills, 170 kilometers east of Ankara and adjacent to the small town of Bogazkale, stands the ancient Hittite sanctuary of Yazilikaya. Meaning 'inscribed rock' in the Turkish language, Yazilikaya is an open air, natural rock shrine at a place where a spring of fresh water once flowed. The site has characteristics similar to other Anatolian spring-sanctuaries, and may well have been a place of worship for hundreds or thousands of years before the rise of Hittite power.
◆ the Museum,
◆ Yazilikaya Temple
Short Video of the Museum and Yazilikaya. (HD1080 MP4 4min23sec 24fps 2Kbps 65.53MB)
Cappadocia which is unique in the world and is a miraculous nature wonder is the common name of the field covered by the provinces of Aksaray, Nevsehir, Nigde, Kayseri and Kirsehir in the Central Anatolian region.
卡帕多西亞除了嶙峋的奇岩怪石最為旅客讚嘆外，這一帶的地下城亦是遊客必到之地。據說地下城數目過百以上，有的仍有人居住，設有寢室、客廳、廚房等等，地道四通八達，仿如迷宮。到了卡帕多西亞，就不能錯過 Ihlara 爾拉喇大峽谷，峽谷流水潺潺，清幽雅致，谷的兩壁遺留有石室教堂與穴，不下百數，石室教堂內洞中有洞，有些殘留著壁畫。沿河向西走，是行山小徑，道路平坦，長約14km，偷得浮生半日閒，在谷內瀏躂，是長時間旅途難得的小休。
◆ Göreme open air museum
◆ Zelve open air museum
◆ Avanos - the Clay Pottery City
◆ Uchisar Castle
◆ Derinkuyu Underground City
◆ Kaymaklı Underground City
◆ Gaziemir Underground City
◆ Ihlara valley
Click Bouncing Mark for Local Map.
In a spectacular landscape, entirely sculpted by erosion, the Göreme valley and its surroundings contain rock-hewn sanctuaries that provide unique evidence of Byzantine art in the post-Iconoclastic period. Dwellings, troglodyte villages and underground towns – the remains of a traditional human habitat dating back to the 4th century – can also be seen there.
Göreme Tarihi Milli Parkı- The area covered by this Open Air Museum forms a coherent geographical entity and represents historical unity. There are eleven refectories within the Museum, with rock-cut churches tables and benches. Each is associated with a church. Most of the churches in Goreme Open Air Museum belong to the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries.In the 3rd century, priests with good character changed the region into a lively centre of Christian activity. In the 4th century Cappadocia became known as the land of the three saints; The Great St. Basil, Bishop of Kayseri; his brother St. Gregory of Nyssa, and St. Gregory of Nazianus. St. Basil founded small, secluded settlements far away from villages and towns. Daily worship was carried out under the supervision of a preacher. These groups were not, however, privileged groups separated from the community like similar communities in Egypt and Syria. St. Basil is important in that he introduced worship within the community in the churches of Cappadocia. Göreme Open Air Museum is the place where this kind of religious education was started. The same model was then introduced in Soğanlı, Ihlara and Açıksaray.
Zelve Archaeological Site - The valley was inhabited until 1952. Apart from monasteries and churches, houses, a tunnel joining two of the valleys, a mill, a mosque and several dove-cotes are found in the valley. Like the ones in Uçhisar, Göreme and Çavuşin, it is not known when the rock dwellings in Zelve were first inhabited but it was an important settlement and religious area during the 9th and 13th centuries. The first seminaries to priests were given here. The Direkli Church (with Columns), situated at the bottom of the slopes, dates back to the early years of monastery life in Zelve. The main decorations are high relief crosses belonging to the Iconoclastic doctrine. Some of the most important churches in the valley are Balıklı (Fish), Üzu¨mlu¨ (Grape) and Geyikli (Deer), belonging to the Pre-Iconoclastic period.
Short Video of the Open Air Museum. (HD1080 MP4 7min53sec 24fps 2Kbps 120.09MB)
Uchisar is situated at the highest point in Cappadocia, on the Nevsehir-Goreme road, just 5 km from Goreme. The top of the Uchisar Castle, provides a magnificent panorama of the surrounding area with Mount Erciyes in the distance.
Many rooms hollowed out into the rock are connected to each other with stairs, tunnels and passages. At the entrances of the rooms, there are millstone doors, just like the ones in the underground settlements, used to control access to these places. Due to the erosion in places of this multi-leveled castle, it is unfortunately not possible to reach all the rooms. Most of the rooms, located on the north side of the castle are in use as pigeon houses (dovecuts) today. Farmers used these cave pigeon houses to collect the droppings of pigeons which is an excellent natural fertilizer for the orchards and vineyards.
Short Video of the Uchisar Castle. (HD1080 MP4 1min52sec 24fps 2Kbps 27.45MB)
One of the characteristics of Cappadocia is having plenty of underground cities. It’s known that there are more than a hundred of underground settlements in the region and many of them are not open for visits. The underground cities, which are guessed to be used since the Bronze Age, used to be a aettlement mostly in Byzantine period, doubtless. In this period, doubtless, increasing invasion forced local residents to build underground cities for protectiopn and religious purposes.
Short Video of the three Underground Cities. (HD1080P 9min25sec 24fps 2Kbps 145.34MB)
◆ Derinkuyu underground city,
The Derinkuyu underground city is located in the same named town Derinkuyu, which is situated 40km from Goreme (30 minute drive). There are about 600 outside doors to the city, hidden in the courtyards of surface dwellings. The underground city is approximately 85m deep. It contains all the usual rooms found in an underground city (stables, cellars, storage rooms, refectories, churches, wineries etc.) Apart from these, a large room with a barrel vaulted ceiling on the second floor was a missionary school, the rooms to the left being study rooms.
◆ Kaymaklı Underground City,
Opened to visitors in 1964, Kaymaklı Underground City was built under the Citadel of Kaymaklı, 19 km from Nevşehir, on the Nevşehir-Niğde road.
In the village of Kaymaklı, the ancient village of Enegup, houses have been constructed near hundreds of tunnels leading to the underground city. The inhabitants of the region still use the tunnels as cellars, storage areas, and stables, which they access through their courtyards.
◆ Gaziemir Underground City,
Gaziemir Undergorund City, which was opened on june 23,2007, has an entrance hall built with stone and it is 10 m in length. This hall is built with overlap technigue that we see another example in Hattusha, the capital city og Hittites. At the end of the hall there is an open area to reach the other parts of the underground city. The other parts of the structure is located around this area. This structure has kept being unavailable because this area was full of mud that was carried by floods.
Ihlara Valley, near Mount Hasan and Mount Melendiz (two of the three volcanoes of Cappadocia) is a canyon with a depth of approximately 100m and was formed by the Melendiz River thousands of years ago. It begins at Ihlara village and ends with Selime Monastery at Selime village after making 26 bends along 14 kilometers.
It is believed that the valley housed more than four thousand dwellings and a hundred cave churches decorated with frescoes. Around eighty thousand people once lived in Ihlara Valley.
Short Video of Ihlara Vadisi. (HD1080P 5min33sec 24fps 2Kbps 84.03MB)
Short Video of the Nemrut Dağı Milli Parkı. (HD1080 MP4 9min13sec 24fps 3Kbps max.312MB)
Click Bouncing Mark for Visualization.
Nemrut Dağı Milli Parkı (Mt Nemrut National Park) is probably the star attraction of eastern Turkey, and rightly so. The enigmatic statues sitting atop the summit have become a symbol of Turkey. The stunning scenery and historical sights and the undeniable sense of mystique and folly that emanates from the site make a visit here essential.
The spellbinding peak of Nemrut Dağı (nehm-root dah-uh) rises to a height of 2150m in the Anti-Taurus Range between the provincial capital of Malatya to the north and Kahta in Adıyaman province to the south.
Nobody knew anything about Nemrut Dağı until 1881, when a German engineer, employed by the Ottomans to assess transport routes, was astounded to come across the statues covering this remote mountaintop. Archaeological work didn’t begin until 1953, when the American School of Oriental Research undertook the project.
◆ Nemrud Dagi
◆ Cendere Roman Bridge
◆ Kahta Castle
◆ Karakus Tumulus
The Sanctuary of Nemrud Dagi is one of the most remarkable, best preserved, but least known monuments of Asia Minor. The site, called by its builder a hierothesion, or "common dwelling place of all the gods next to the heavenly thrones," is situated 2150m above sea level atop one of the highest peaks in the Anti-Taurus Mountains of southeastern Turkey near the banks of the Euphrates River. The monument is one of the premier sites of the Late Hellenistic period. It was constructed by King Antiochus I of Commagene in the mid-1st century BCE to command a 360° view of the ranges, plains, and towns that comprised his ancient kingdom. It became the main sanctuary of his ruler cult to which worshippers from all over this kingdom were expected to go on the monthly and yearly anniversary of the king's birth and his accession to the throne.
The Cendere Bridge (also known as Severan Bridge, Chabinas Bridge or in Turkish: Cendere Köprüsü) is situated in Kahta Cayi valley within the Mount Nemrut national park. The bridge is constructed of 92 stones, each weighing about 10 tons as a simple arch at the narrowest point of the Chabinas Creek (Cendere Çayı in Turkish). At 112 feet, the span is the second largest arch bridge built by the Romans in existence today.
It was built by four Kommagenean cities in honor of the Roman Emperor Lucius Septimius Severus (193-211), his second wife Julia Domna and their sons Lucius Septimius Bassianus Caracalla and Publius Septimius Antoninius Geta.
There were originally four Corinthian columns on the bridge, two columns on the Kahta side dedicated to Septimius Severus himself and his wife, and two another columns on the Sincik side dedicated to Caracalla and Geta, all 30 feet in height. However, the column of Geta was removed following his assassination by Caracalla, who damned his memory and ordered his name to be removed from all inscriptions.
This fortress is about 60 km. east of Adiyaman, near Kocahisar village. Kahta Castle or Eski Kale is built on a 300-350 metre high rock. Archeologists have proven it to be the fortress for the kings of Commagene. Certain additions were made in Mameluk times to give the appearance that it has today. The castle is surrounded by high walls with only one entrance gate. Inside are houses, shopping areas, a bazaar, a mosque, cisterns, a jail and a dungeon.
Karakuş Tümülüsü (Women's Monument Tomb) - Located at Adıyaman-Kahta entrance in south-west of the Mountain Nemrut National Park, the Monumental Tomb was built by Commagene's King Mithradates II and was dedicated to his mother Isas. Because of the symbol of eagle on the top of the columns, it was named as Karakus(black bird) Tumulus.
There were four columns in each east, west and south directions, however today only two at east, one at west and one at south remain. On the east columns are ruins of lion and eagle statues, on the west columns, on the other hand, grounds a relief of 'shaking hands' and on the ground remain pieces of lion statue.
Karakuş Tumulus determined as the entrance of Mt Nemrut is also located in the National Park.
From Adiyaman due south-west, Mersin is the first Mediterranean Coastal city. Along the coastal highway are beautiful beaches extending all the way to Alanya, Antalya and Fethiye. No doubts that this resort area attracts lots of sun and beach goers, especially from Russia ad the Eatsern European countries.
◆ Silifke Kızkalesi （Maiden's Castle）
◆ Yalan Dünya Mağazası
◆ Kaputaş Plajı
Short Video of the Antalya Region. (HD1080 MP4 11min37sec 24ps 3Kbps max. 394MB)
Xanthos, which was the capital of Lycia between 700 and 300 BC, is known as the largest administrative centre of Lycia during antiquity.
This site illustrates the blending of Lycian traditions and Hellenic influence, especially in its funerary art. The epigraphic inscriptions are crucial for our understanding of the history of the Lycian people and their Indo-European language.
Letoon, which was Inscribed to the UNESCO World Heritage List together with Xanthos in 1988, was one of the most prominent religious centres of antiquity.
Denizli is the commercial and transportation hub of inland region of southeastern Aegean Turkey. It is nestled against the hillside at the southern side of the plains of Büyük Menderes River. It's a busy place partly because of nearby Pamukkale and its travertine pools but mainly because it's the main commercial hub for the agricultural produce coming from the region. It's also the place where you probably need to go if you're in need of cash.
Short Video of Hierapolis-Pamukkale. (HD1080P 14min05sec 24fps 3Kbps max.478MB)
希拉波利斯 - 帕穆克卡萊（棉花堡）
Hierapolis was founded during the Phrygian era, and its name was derived from Hiera, the beautiful wife of Telephos, the King of Pergamon. Hierapolis played an important role in spreading Christianity in Asia Minor, and it was the place where Phillip, one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, died.
The Pamukkale travertine was created by thermal water depositing the calcium carbonate it contained. The natural wonder of Pamukkale travertine deposits span a 160 metres tall and 2700 metres long cascade. With its brilliant white colour, it can be seen about a distance of 20 km. At Pamukkale there are 17 thermal springs with water temperatures between 35-100-C.
Deriving from springs in a cliff almost 200 m high overlooking the plain, calcite-laden waters have created at Pamukkale (Cotton Palace) an unreal landscape, made up of mineral forests, petrified waterfalls and a series of terraced basins. At the end of the 2nd century B.C. the dynasty of the Attalids, the kings of Pergamon, established the thermal spa of Hierapolis. The ruins of the baths, temples and other Greek monuments can be seen at the site.
Short Video of Aphrodisias. (HD1080P 11min0sec 24fps 3Kbps max.372MB)
Aphrodisias was a small city in Caria, on the southwest coast of Asia Minor. Its site is located near the modern village of Geyre, Turkey, about 230 km from İzmir. Aphrodisias was named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, who had here her unique cult image, the Aphrodite of Aphrodisias.
The city was built near a marble quarry that was extensively exploited in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and sculpture in marble from Aphrodisias became famous in the Roman world. Many examples of statuary have been unearthed in Aphrodisias, and some representations of the Aphrodite of Aphrodisias also survive from other parts of the Roman world.
The ancient city of Aphrodisias is one of the most important archaeological sites of the Greek and Roman periods in Turkey. Famous in antiquity for its sanctuary of Aphrodite, the city's patron goddess, Aphrodisias enjoyed a long and prosperous existence from the second century B.C. through the sixth century A.D. Today, many of the city's ancient monuments remain standing, and excavations have unearthed numerous fine marble statues and other artifacts. The great beauty and extraordinary preservation of this site combine to bring the civic culture of the Greco-Roman world vividly to life.
阿普洛迪希亞古城是土耳其的希臘和羅馬時期最重要的考古遺址之一。在古代這個城市因它的守護神女神而聞名，阿普洛迪希亞享受一個長期繁榮的時期，從公元前二世紀到公元六世紀以至今天，許多古老的古蹟仍立，並發掘及出土大量精細的大理石雕像和其他文物。美麗和非凡的保存，生動地結合起來，把古希臘 - 羅馬世界的文化活現。
Kuşadası is a coastal resort town in the Aydin Province of Aegean Turkey. It has become a popular holiday resort, especially for visitors from Northern and Western Europe. It has about 50,000 residents, although that grows significantly during the high season months of May to October.
◆ Kadınlar Denizi (Ladies Beach)
◆ Samos Island
Ephesus (Turkish Efes) was an ancient Greek city, and later a major Roman city, on the west coast of Asia Minor, near present-day Selçuk, Izmir Province, Turkey. It was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League during the Classical Greek era. In the Roman period, Ephesus had a population of more than 250,000 in the 1st century BC, which also made it one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean world.
Short Video of Ephesus. (HD1080P 9min15sec 24fps 3Kbps max.314MB)
The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (completed around 550 BC), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Emperor Constantine I rebuilt much of the city and erected new public baths. Following the Edict of Thessalonica from emperor Theodosius I, the temple was destroyed in 401 AD by a mob led by St. John Chrysostom. The town was partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD. The city's importance as a commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly silted up by the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes).
Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the Book of Revelation. The Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th century Christian Councils, see Council of Ephesus. It is also the site of a large gladiators' graveyard.
Meryemana (House of the Virgin Mary) Legend has it that the Virgin Mary lived her last days on earth in a small stone cottage on Mount Koressos (Bülbüldağı, "Nightingale Mountain" in Turkish) to the south of Ephesus.
The house was discovered in the 19th century by following the descriptions in the reported visions of Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (1774–1824), a Roman Catholic nun and visionary, which were published as a book by Clemens Brentano after her death. The Catholic Church has never pronounced in favour or against the authenticity of the house, but nevertheless maintains a steady flow of pilgrimage since its discovery. The shrine has also gained the Apostolic Blessing of the first pilgrimage by Pope Leo XIII in 1896, having been taken a positive attitude towards the site and towards Emmerich's visions. Anne Catherine Emmerich was Beatified by Pope John Paul II on October 3, 2004.
Short Video of Meryemana. (HD1080P 1min28sec 24fps 3Kbps max.49MB)
Samos (Greek: Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi)-wide Mycale Strait. It is also a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit.
In ancient times Samos was a particularly rich and powerful city-state. It is home to Pythagoreion and the Heraion of Samos, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct, a marvel of ancient engineering. Samos is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named, the philosopher Epicurus, and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun. Samian wine was well known in antiquity, and is still produced on the island.
The island was an autonomous principality from 1835 until it joined Greece in 1912.
Short Video of Samos Island. (HD1080P 8min12sec 24fps 3Kbps max.278MB)